2001 - No child Left Behind

George W. Bush advanced both charter schools and vouchers. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was a law that required states to create academic standards, annually test children in reading and math in grades three through eight (and once in high school) and hold districts and schools accountable for the results. States had to determine which students were proficient, identify schools where an insufficient number of students were proficient, ensure that specified measures were taken with regards to schools that failed to make “adequate yearly progress,” and set targets that ensured 100 percent of children would be proficient in reading and math by 2014.  Schools whose students failed to show progress over two years could face significant sanctions – including state takeovers or being made into private charter schools.